The Science and Software of the ATM

When you insert you credit or debit card in an ATM, you set off a chain of events, commands and procedures that take mere seconds to complete, and give you instant access to your own money. But whether you’re withdrawing cash, checking your balance, or doing something a little different like topping up a pay-as-you-go mobile phone, the ATM has to work just has hard to ensure that you are given what you requested. But what exactly goes on inside the ATM while you wait patiently outside? Here is a very short explanation.

All ATMs work on the same basic principle and use similar software to give the consumer what they want, and for a number of ATMs, this software is made up of three different products: Platforms, Applications and Management Servers.

Platform
The Platform is part of a family that provides the foundations for developing custom applications for all types of ATMs, including kiosks and branch teller stations. This software provides a developer with everything they need to create applications for ATMs and kiosk systems.

Application
The application software gives the ATM complete functionality and can also be modified and tailored for specific needs by banks. This means that it can enable banks to add extra features, services and enable customers to complete extra transactions for customers.

Management Server
The Management Server is a remote management solution. It provides a very extensive range of ATM Management features in one place, which historically could only be provided by a number of separate systems, this enables it to provide secure management straight to every ATM or other kiosk in the network.

Another ATM management software that is less commonly used in the majority of ATMs is SafetyPIN software. As you might imagine, this software was created and installed to protect the user from fraud, and as such it is designed to alert the authorities, namely the police, of a forced cash withdrawal. The way this works is that a customer enters their PIN or Personal Identification Number in the wrong order, such as backwards when forced to do so. However, while this system dates back to 1986, when former US police officer proposed it in Congress, the system has not gathered a lot of support, and as such, it is only available on a handful of ATMs in a handful of places, contrary to popular belief, this software is not in place on ATMs around the world.

While there is a lot more to ATM software than meets the eye, it can be quite complicated to explain to people who are unfamiliar with technology, or someone who has never worked in software development. However, if you really want to know more about ATM software, then the internet is the best place to start, so type the phrase into a search engine to begin your search journey, and see what other information you can find out.

Forensic Science & Ethics

You might have come across in the news many cases of murder, burglary, and similar other occurrences of crime, which are solved by the Police Department. The Police personnel use Forensic Science in their investigation, to analyze clues and find the truth to book the culprits behind those crimes. Forensic Science is a branch of Science and Technology – including and not limited – to pathology, psychology, criminology, toxicology, entomology, molecular biology and so on.

Instances where Forensic Science is used:

For example, the body of a young girl is found inside a bush in a remote area. Police suspect it may be a case of rape and murder. The body is taken to the hospital for postmortem. During postmortem, it is found out that the girl has been raped and murdered and a fight must have taken place between the girl and the culprit (s). Forensic experts collect tissues from the finger nails of the girl and traces of semen found in her productive organ.

The Forensic Lab researches the tissues and particles of semen and records the details of DNA (a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions of molecules) in cells. These details are matched with the body cells of the suspected-accused, to establish whether that person is involved in that crime or not.

Similarly a burglary takes place in a jewelry mart at dead of night. Forensic experts collect the finger prints available at the scene of occurrence and match them with those suspected in that case. The investigation report along with that of the Forensic Lab is submitted in the Court as evidence to prove the guilt of the accused.

Ethics in Forensic Science:

You are aware that Ethics means following the principles of natural justice, in all the activities without fear or favor in a neutral way. In other words, ethics is self-disciplined behavior in a society and up-keeping moral values in one’s business or profession. As Forensic Science is used to put the clues of a particular occurrence into finding the truth, and experts render testimony in Courts of Law, it is most essential that the evidence should be on Ethical Standards, not to be misleading or false.

Significance of Ethics in Forensic Science:

In all countries normally Forensic Labs are part of the Law Enforcing Machinery under the Government. More specifically, the Forensic Experts are working for the Police and chances are, they are influenced by the Police force to win the cases in Courts. They are also obligated to the Public Prosecutor in providing evidence in favor of the Police Department in the Court.

Therefore the significance of Ethics need not be stressed in providing reports and testimony in such cases, as it involves life or death for the accused, apart from loss of money and social prestige, in the event of unethical and biased evidence by Forensic experts.

Professional Standards of Ethics in Forensic Science Departments

Although some ethical codes are defined for Criminalists and Forensic Scientists of their respective departments in all the countries, a universally-acceptable Professional Standards of Ethics is elusive and yet to be arrived at and implemented. The need for such standards is felt immensely, as the awareness of the vital role of Forensic Scientists in criminal cases is enlarging on various fields.

Technological Innovation Through Tech Mining For Market Dominance

Innovation means technological change. The technology change results in practical implication or commercialization, it does not mean just generation of ideas. The importance of technological innovation in today’s competitive economy is very clear, as today the worldwide economy depends on technology and technological innovation to an extraordinary degree.

Technological innovation plays important role in the economical growth of any country. Us, Japan, and other European countries are developed only due to there technological progress. In recent years, Singapore, India, China and many other countries are advancing dramatically due to technological innovations and progress. High technology companies are a significant and growing component of the economy. The competitive of these companies depends on technological innovations. Innovations improves standard of living. Developments in medical and pharmaceutical technologies have delivered extensive returns in health and life span.

Technological innovation involves tech mining. Tech mining includes understanding the technological innovation processes to track them more effectively and get informed about latest happenings and make valuable business decisions about R&D and subsequent implementation and adoption choices.

Innovation is defined as the process by which technological ideas are generated, developed and transformed into new business products, process and services that are used to make a profit and establish marketplace advantage. A better understanding of the innovation process is essential to figure out empirical measures deriving from innovation activities to generate actionable technological intelligence.

Tech mining is done through data or information extraction from multiple data sources, compilation and analyzing the results and represents key findings in actionable visual representation for easy understanding to what is happening now and predicting the future technologies.

Various types of technology analysis that can be aided by tech mining is as follows:

(A) Technology Monitoring (technology watch) – cataloguing, characterizing, identifying and interpreting technology development activities

(B) Competitive Technological Intelligence (CTI) -exploring out “Who is doing what?”

(C) Technology Forecasting-anticipating possible future development paths for particular technology domains

(D) Technology Road mapping – tracking evolutionary steps in related technologies and, sometimes, product families, technology diversification and technology tree

(E) Technology Assessment – anticipating the possible unintended, direct, indirect, and delayed consequences of particular technological changes

(F) Technology Foresight – strategic planning (especially national) with emphasis on technology roles and priorities

(G) Technology Process Management – getting people involved to make decisions about technology

(H) Science and Technology Indicators – time series that track advances in national (or other) technological capabilities

Reasons to Do Tech Mining

  • Forecast likely development paths for emerging technologies – identify new products, research or service opportunity
  • Identify competitors, or collaborators, at the “fuzzy front end” of new product development – keep tract of your competitor’s activity for market dominance.
  • Identify potential customers for your intellectual property (“IP”) – new licensing, collaboration, acquisition and merger opportunities.
  • Discover additional application arenas for the outputs of your R&D – identify how to develop new products and services from your existing business processes, without inventing more.
  • Gauge market potential for prospective technology-based products and services
  • Be a wiser consumer of others’ science and technology
  • Manage the risks of technology development and implementation based on better information.